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Empirical decomposition of customer responses to discount

The effects of dollar-off vs. percentage-off coupons are examined for 3,827 customers who had redeemed both types of coupon framings in an Australian online fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) retail context. Results from Bayesian simultaneous equation modelling confirm that compared to dollar-off coupons, percentage-off general coupons induce

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URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0969698920313485

Empirical decomposition of customer responses to discount

As for dollar-off coupons, customers in Cluster 1 show the highest increase in spending and a moderate increase in the inter-purchase time and hence should be on top of the retailer's list to receive dollar-off coupons. Moreover, dollar-off coupons in Cluster 2, as the largest cluster identified, seem to be causing a significant delay in

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Coupons in context: discounting prices or decreasing

These were “$ off” coupons, so as to generalize the effects of Study 3 that used BOGO coupons (note however, that many pizzerias, in fact, use BOGO coupons). Finally, to examine the generalizability of the conceptual arguments proposed in Studies 1 and 2, we manipulated both the presence of alternate price information of the company’s own

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Trade deals and/or on-package coupons

The coupon-induced repeat-purchase effect contributes to enhancing the appeal of on-pack coupons. As a result, on-pack coupons are more attractive than peel-off coupons or instant rebates (Martín-Herrán et al., 2010), which only affect the first purchase and do not have any direct effect on subsequent purchases. Further numerical analysis

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Two-period discount pricing strategies for an e-commerce

The online coupons are divided into short-term coupons and long-term coupons. They are defined as a single online coupon recommended to consumers in period 1, and consumers can only redeem them within a specified period (period 1 or period 2). The platform will offer these online coupons to encourage consumers to purchase products.

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Omnichannel retailing operations with coupon promotions

The omnichannel retailer is better off dropping the price and not providing coupons when online channel is the preference for a large portion of consumers. Such pricing and coupon promotion strategies also true when the negative effect of coupon promotions is great.

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A comparative analysis of marketing promotions and

1. Introduction. Retailers use many types of sales promotions. A consumer shopping at a large retailer is likely to see signs advertising “Take 30% off regular price” on some products, “buy one at the regular price get the second for 1 2 off” on other products, or find ads containing coupons entitling her to take some amounts off the regular products' prices.

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Zero-Coupon Bond

Moorad Choudhry, in The Bond & Money Markets, 2001. 14.5.2 Bond interest payment. Corporate bonds pay a fixed or floating-rate coupon. Floating-rate bonds were reviewed in Chapter 5. Zero-coupon bonds are also popular in the corporate market, indeed corporate zero-coupon bonds differ from zero-coupon bonds in government markets in that they are actually issued by the borrower, …

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Spectrum Loading

A second test series composed of 17 coupons was also performed: 8 cut on-axis, 0°, and tested at two different stress levels, 6 at 30°off-axis, tested at three different stress levels and 3 coupons cut at 60°, tested at just one stress level. A different spectrum, henceforth …

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Lap Shear Test

The lap-shear test is illustrated in Fig. 3.13. It was originally made from two pieces of 1.6 mm metal strip one inch in width, bonded together over a length of half an inch. These dimensions have now (in Europe) been replaced by the metric equivalents shown in the figure. This testpiece is loaded to failure in a normal tensile testing machine.

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Customized Targeting Strategies for Category Coupons to

For instance, Amazon offers “25% off of ANY Book” and eBay distributes “Extra 10% off Fashion & Beauty” coupons. The focal retailer currently designs a category-specific promotion when its marketing campaign budget is limited and so does not allow for the more expensive, non-category-specific promotions and their higher redemption rates.

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The influence of coupon duration on consumers’ redemption

The face value has important implications for sellers' profitability through the number and types of consumers attracted by coupons. In selecting the optimal face value, the sellers need to trade-off the gain from attracting new consumers with the loss from coupon redemption by loyal consumers.

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Consumers use of price promotions: a model and its

H3: Consumers’ liking of (a) coupons, (b) cents-off and (c) deals in general positively influence their purchase intention of the promoted product. H4: Consumers’ liking of (a) coupons, (b) cents-off and (c) deals in general positively influence their stockpiling intention. 2.4.

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The effect of permanent product discounts and order

In China, order coupons are normally formatted as amount-off discounts. 4. The focal retailer offers both unconditional coupons (e.g., a 10 CNY-off coupon, which can be redeemed for any orders) and conditional coupons (e.g., a 10 CNY-off coupon, which can be only redeemed for orders with a certain amount).

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Robust exclusion and market division through loyalty

Notice that in period 1 I only offers a discount off the price it will later offer to buyers who did not agree to the loyalty discount (I does not commit to a price when it offers the loyalty discount). This is a fairly common assumption in the exclusive dealing literature.

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Does online retail coupons and memberships create

3.1. Theory of impulsiveness3.1.1. Coupons on purchase value and perceived impulsiveness. Online coupons are mostly used to avail a specified discount on the end transaction amount by using a coupon code (Drossos et al., 2015, Suri et al., 2004).Consumers try to optimise the best value for a deal, and this may derive from both psychological and functional benefits (Kumar & …

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Sinusoidal Waveform

At least three coupons were tested at each one of the four or five stress levels of any S–N curve. All tests were conducted at room temperature, 18–22 °C. As was mentioned previously, axial tests on coupons cut off-axis, at an angle 0, from principal material directions were performed to induce complex stress states in the principal

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Pricing strategy and moral hazard: Copay coupons in

Branded drug manufacturers issue copay coupons to compete with generics as their brands are coming off patent. To explore the impact of copay coupons on pricing and welfare, I estimate a model of demand and supply using data on sales, advertising, and copayment for cholesterol-lowering drugs and perform a counterfactual analysis to simulate equilibrium pricing with copay coupons used for price

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Coupon Trading and its Impacts on Consumer Purchase and

For imperfectly targeted coupons (e.g., on-pack coupons), research also compares the impact of coupons distributed through different vehicles. Raju, Dhar, and Morrison (1994) examine the relative impact of peel-off coupons, on-pack coupons, and in-pack coupons on market share, and find that on-pack coupons may lead to a higher market share than

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Pricing strategy and moral hazard: Copay coupons in

Copay coupons can help to combat generic entry by lowering the costs for patients and influencing doctors’ decisions. 11 In March 2013, 62% of the 374 copay coupons found from www.internetdrugcoupons.com, a large drug coupon website, were for branded drugs with generic alternatives. 12 As many blockbuster drugs went off-patent, and few new

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A new damage model for composite laminates

A detailed discussion about off-axis experimental tests is presented by literatures , . Herakovich shows that the test coupon aspect ratio and lamina orientation have a significant influence for obtaining τ xy. Also, Pierron and Vautrin show the effects caused by the end tabs, when off

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Decontamination of common healthcare facility surfaces

Dry fogging process was initiated after turning off the laboratory air system; this took ∼8–20 min and 2.5 L of dilute chemical to reach 80% RH. After a contact time of 1 h, the air system was turned on to aerate out the residual chemicals from the rooms; biological indicators and test surface coupons were retrieved for processing.

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Influence of coupons on online travel reservation service

By comparing two types of coupons (dollars-off and percentage-off) with high and low price levels and their effects on customers' perception after service recovery, Lii and Lee (2012) show that customers feel that they are treated more fairly when they perceive that a coupon gives them a price reduction in terms of dollars for expensive

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A study of corrosion on electrodeposited superhydrophobic

The roll-off angle was measured by the same apparatus with 25 μL deionized (DI) water and tilting cradle method. For wettability characterization after each immersion test, the coupons were first slightly washed using a hand-squeezed laboratory DI-water bottle and left to dry in room atmosphere overnight before the contact angle measurement. 2.4.

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Coupon promotion and its two-stage price intervention on

Considering the effect of consumer patience, the possibility of losing coupons, and forgetting to redeem coupons, the redemption of coupons is a probabilistic event (Krishna & Zhang, 1999). Thus, we characterize it through a redemption rate η (manufacturer's coupon redemption rate) and μ (retailer's coupon redemption rate).

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Toward a common laser powder bed fusion qualification test

The chemical and mechanical testing coupons were able to be snapped off the part by hand reducing post process equipment needs and minimizing analysis costs (see end of Section 4.7 for additional discussion of manufacturing and testing costs). Download : Download high-res image (2MB) Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 12.

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Nonlinear behavior of pultruded FRP composites

Geometry of coupons used in off-axis compressive and tension tests. Fig. 4, Fig. 5 show the compressive stress–strain results for all off-axis angles. All tests were repeated three to four times and run up to the breakage of coupon. In the case of 0° coupons, the material shows a nonlinear stress–strain response at a relatively higher

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Ecotoxicological effects of erythromycin on a multispecies

Biofilms grown on the surface of coupons were scraped off and resuspended in the phosphate-buffered saline solution. Following the removal of the scraped coupon, suspended biofilm was centrifuged at (5000 RPM) and the resulting biofilm pellets were quenched in liquid nitrogen before storage at −80 °C until further analyses.

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Corrosion Potential

The success of using coupons to monitor CP levels is evident in this approach being incorporated into both a NACE Standard Practice (NACE, 2010), and as part of a NACE International Test Method Standard (NACE, 2012).In NACE SP0104, it is mentioned that one of the advantages of using coupons is to be able to better establish instant-off-potential measurements using coupons, because they can

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Evaluation of powder rheology as a potential tool to

These metals were made by Natoli Engineering (Missouri, US) into metal coupons (metal discs) identical to the default Aluminum coupon in the FT4 wall friction kit. Data collected from wall friction test were used to plot τ w vs. σ w and identify powder's Wall Yield Locus. The wall yield Locus represents the resistance between the powder and

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An ethical framework for big data and smart cities

The father discovered coupons for baby clothes and cribs sent by the retailer to his daughter, who was then found pregnant. With the information collected both by the retailer and by purchase from other companies, the algorithmic analytics of the company could confirm the pregnancy even without the permission of the girl and sent off product

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The 10 ° off-axis tensile test: A critical approach

This paper addresses the issue of the improvement of the experimental procedure of the 10 ° off-axis tensile test by using oblique tabs. It is shown that oblique tabs significantly increase the maximum shear stress at failure and that unlike straight-tabbed specimens failing in the tabbed area, oblique-tabbed specimens failed neatly in the gauge section.

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Failure analysis and simulation model of pinhole corrosion

All pinholes were located at the bottom of the pipeline at ~6 o'clock. At points #1, #2, and #4 in the figure, the 3 layer polyethylene (3-PE) coating peeled off; these three defects did not leak before the excavation. The original state of the 3-PE coating is the protrusion bubble. The shape of the protrusion bubble is shown in Fig. 4. After

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Sales framing, mental accounting, and discount assignments

1. Introduction. Marketing managers often use promotions to enhance the purchasing intentions of consumers. These promotions may focus on changing the price of target items (e.g., discounts, coupons), offering extra product (e.g., freebies), increasing the volume of target items (e.g., buy one get one free, bonus pack), or pursuing a mixed promotion (e.g., buy two, get 25% off; Chen …

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Sulfide scale catalysis of copper corrosion

The sulfide scale at both pHs flaked off the coupons when disturbed by changes in flow or with vibration during exposure. The scale at pH 6.5 detached the most readily and in the largest pieces. Upon drying, the underlying scale was orange with a powdery appearance at pH 6.5 and was gray and slightly shiny, similar in appearance to graphite at

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Residual behaviour of corroded welded hollow spherical

After 100, 131, and 157 days of accelerated corrosion, the rust layers on the surfaces of standard coupons B were cleaned using clean water and anhydrous ethanol, and the epoxy resin adhesive at the ends of standard coupons B was peeled off.

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Enhanced plasticity of the oxide scales by in-situ formed

Both the coated Zr alloy coupons and an uncoated Zr alloy coupon were simultaneously tested in the 1200 °C steam for 1 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, respectively. The Zr alloy coupons were well protected by the Cr/CrAlSiN coatings for >8 h, whereas the effective protection from the …

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Antecedents and consequences of cross-effects: An

For instance, omni-coupons increase the offer liability, as ‘25% off your next purchase’ for a customer can easily translate into 25% off on any one of the channels for a given customer. An omni-coupon strategy, therefore, needs to be coordinated across channels to ensure single redemption per coupon ( Slavin, 2018 ).

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Bacterial exopolymeric inhibition of carbon steel

All the experiments were carried out with metal coupons in 50 ml VNSS medium (Ornek et al., 2001). 2.5. Screening of bacteria. Primary screening was done by evaluation of sessile cells. The coupons were taken off the medium after a short period of 3 and 5 days and were stained with the fluorescence dye.

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Mini-grid based off-grid electrification to enhance

Similarly, flexible bill collection (on a daily or weekly basis), either in-person or using recharge coupons, was introduced by some to lower the financial burden on the consumers, although the bill collection cost increases for the supplier. 3.6. Integrating off-grid electrification with livelihood and other development projects is essential

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Microbiologically influenced corrosion of cable bolts in

Stressed coupons, made from the wires of cable bolts, were immersed in testing bottles containing groundwater collected from an underground coal mine and a mixture of A. ferrooxidans and geomaterials. It was observed that A. ferrooxidans caused pitting corrosion on the surface of cable bolts in the near-neutral environment.

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Corrosion of SS310 and Alloy 740 in high temperature

Flat test samples (20 mm long ×10 mm wide ×2 mm thick) were machined from commercial SS310 and Alloy 740 plates, and their normalized chemical compositions are shown in Table 1.A small hole (2 mm in radius) was made near the top middle of each coupon for suspending on a custom holder during high-temperature s−CO 2 exposure. Before autoclave testing, all the coupons …

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Automated manufacturing of bio-inspired carbon-fibre

Geometrical details of the coupons are given in Table 1. The glass fibre tabs were glued in correspondence of the laminate’ region without cuts, so to avoid the failing of the coupons in the grip area during the test, being the minimum distance between cut and tabs 15 mm (D tab-cut) . More details about the tab bonding process are given in

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Enhanced removal of hydrophobic endocrine disrupting

All the experiments were conducted in triplicate. The EDC-filtered membranes were cut into coupons of 6 cm 2. After rinsing with DI water, the membrane coupons were then immersed into 50 mL 50% methanol solution for EDC extraction at 120 rpm for 24 h. The supernatant after extraction were then collected for EDC analysis. 2.6. Analytical methods

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Effect of tannic acid on corrosion behavior of carbon

As for coupons in S2 and S3, corrosion product falls off to different degree, whereas more corrosion product leaves the surface. The thickness of corrosion layer for coupons in S1, S2, and S3 tends to decrease in the order of S1, S2, and S3, indicating corrosion resistance of carbon steel increases with tannic acid concentration.

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Residual stress and cold work assessment in shot-peened

Quadratic interpolation was used based on a six-point calibration procedure to compensate for lift-off, thereby enabling the system to measure the AECC in coupons up to 100 MHz . As it was pointed out earlier, these measurements are still rather sensitive to lift-off above 30 MHz, and great care had to be taken to minimize the lift-off

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Experimental failure investigation of pull-off tests of

The results corresponding to 3 coupons Type-A for each layout (i.e. 6 specimens) and 2 coupons Type-B for each layout (i.e. 4 specimens) are reported. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the specimen failure in terms of: (i) damage initiation load and location, (ii) growth evolution path, (iii) analysis of the exposed damaged

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Cavitation-assisted decontamination of yttria from

The test coupons were heated to 400 °C at a heating rate of 60 °C h −1. After holding for 30 min, the coupons were heated to 800 °C at a heating rate of 90 °C h −1. The coupons for the leaching test were obtained by depositing a 200 µm thickness layer of yttria on graphite of density 1.82 g cm −3. The diameter of the tokens is 18 ±

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