Stigma by Association in Coupon Redemption: Looking Cheap
To manipulate coupon value, buyers were then privately informed that the bookstore was running a promotion and that a coupon was available for the assigned product. The experimenter provided buyers with $5.00 and a coupon worth either $0.25 (low value) or $1.00 (high value) off …
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How Do Consumers’ Cultural Backgrounds and Values
Abstract. Although coupons are very effective in increasing sales, a major challenge marketers face with coupons is the low redemption rates. Consequently, marketers are continuously trying to identify consumers who are more or less likely to respond to couponing efforts, in order to better direct coupons to segments high in coupon proneness and hence increase redemption rates.
Sales promotions and food consumption Oxford Academic
Price discounts. Direct price discounts such as “50% off”. Coupons issued by the manufacturers or supermarkets. Discounts via supermarket loyalty cards. Refunds. Extra-product price promotions. Free with-purchase (buy-one-get-one-free) Reduced price with-purchase (buy one and get another at …
Ignored or Rejected: Retail Exclusion Effects on Construal
Coupon Code Preference. For the analysis of coupon code preferences, we used only points allocated to the coupon code format Y (textual format) because the points allocated to both options had to equal 100. As predicted, a one-way ANOVA showed a main effect of retail exclusion type (F(3, 200) = 4.70, p = .003).
Effect of Goal Specificity on Consumer Goal Reengagement
There were 25 items on the grocery list, and participants were given 16 coupons (e.g., 37 cents off brand A shampoo, 10% off brand C coffee); some coupons were not relevant to their grocery list. Then participants went through a virtual grocery store in …
Promotional Games Increase Consumer Conversion Rates and
While prior research on discounts has studied how different facets of a straight discount, such as how its format (e.g., percentage off vs. buy one get one free; Gordon-Hecker et al. 2019), amount (Grewal et al. 1998), and presentation (Krishna et al. 2002) impact decision making, it is a priori unclear how such discounts would be judged vis-à
How Price Promotions Influence Postpurchase Consumption
Methodological consistency considerations along with practical laboratory constraints have led us, across experiments, to control for the discount level (50% off) and type of promotion (simple cash discount commonly used in retail stores) and to choose product categories (juice, chocolate, music) to which a small discount amount (50 cents
Asymmetric Effect of Discount Retraction on Subsequent
The trade-off contrast hypothesis introduced by Simonson and Tversky to interpret context-dependent choice regularities can also be used to predict an unconditional negative postpromotion effect: promoted brands offer an improved price-quality trade-off, and, by an effect of contrast, the regular price offering loses attractiveness when the
Regulating abuse of superior bargaining position under the
Cases decided under the Specific Designations include the case against Valor, a retailer running supermarket and DIY stores, on the ground of forcing its suppliers to buy gift products and coupons for goods amounting to about JPY17.1 million in June 2005 and JPY14.9 million from October to November, 2005 (ReValor Co Ltd n 30); and the case
Competition in Posted Prices with Stochastic Discounts
Firms often offer discounts off public list or posted prices. For example, Busse et al.() document the widespread use of price discounts against fixed list prices by car dealerships in California, while Goldberg (), Scott Morton et al() and the United Kingdom’s Competition Commission 2000, Appendix 7.1) document that discounts in the private automobile market vary significantly across
Sharing the Burden–the New Obligations Imposed on Banks
A sometimes overlooked point in the 2011 Prolongation Communication was the introduction of a requirement that any capital support in the form of hybrid instruments (such as subordinated debt) for which coupons were payable should contain a so-called …
Power and Action Orientation: Power as a Catalyst for
Researchers have found that price discounts such as media-distributed coupons and cents-off deals induce brand switching (Dodson et al. 1978). Sales promotions also affect brand switching with a large portion of the sales promotion elasticity (from 40% to 94%, depending on the product category) attributed to brand switching (see Bell, Chiang
Cost of Being Poor: Retail Price and Consumer Price Search
where n i is the number of competing stores within the trading area for store i, T i is the highest level of price search costs for consumers in the trading area, and ̅α is the mean selling cost across the competitors. The result shows that the equilibrium store price charged is an increasing function of the marginal selling cost as well as of consumers' search costs but is a decreasing
Can the Trade-off Theory Explain Debt Structure
The first column details which articles allow for some form of debt renegotiation. Anderson and Sundaresan introduce strategic debt service using a binomial tree extensive form game.Mella-Barral and Hege and Mella-Barral (HMB) (2000, 2005) allow for repeated irreversible coupon concessions.Francois and Morellec model the Chapter 11 process, rather than a private workout.
Countervailing Market Responses to Corporate Co-optation
What a long strange trip it has been. Over the course of 3 decades, organic foods, once a totem of the 1960s antiestablishment, anticorporate, anticonformist, hippie counterculture, morphed into a cultural symbol of the cultural creative professional class (Brooks 2000; Florida 2002).No longer a province of unadorned, bulk-bin co-ops, organic foods have become staple items for trendy upscale
Room for Opportunity: Resource Scarcity Increases
Then, in a purportedly unrelated task, participants imagined that they wanted to go grocery shopping and found discount coupons for two local supermarkets in the newspaper. One supermarket offers 10% to 30% off (i.e., a range offer), whereas the other offers 20% off (i.e., a point offer).
Colonization of freshwater biofilms by nitrifying bacteria
Biofilms from the flume microcosms were scraped off the ceramic coupons by using sterile coverslips and were pooled in 2-mL plastic vials. Epilithic biofilms from the La Tordera streambed were collected from the shaded bottom side of three randomly selected cobbles per sampling site and date.
Cyclic dipeptide cyclo(l-leucyl-l-prolyl) from marine
Again, the coupons were washed off to remove unbound stain and finally air-dried before examination. SS coupons with cells grown in CLP-free medium were utilized as control. Images of the stained SS coupons were visualized under CLSM (LSM 710, Carl Zeiss, Germany) and processed with Zeiss LSM Image Examiner (Version 188.8.131.52), equipped with an
reflection of history: fluctuations in Greek sovereign
From 1 May and again from 1 November each year, coupons were paid off at Hambros Bank in London, while at the same time bonds drawn by lot for redemption could be redeemed. 15 Consequently, these biannual, regularly spaced spikes were removed from the data set before any further analysis was carried out. 3.3.2 Detecting breakpoints in the variance
How Much of the Corporate-Treasury Yield Spread Is Due to
In principle, the asset payout rate should represent the average total net annual payments to holders of all of the firm’s securities (which include coupons, principal payments, dividends, and share repurchases less proceeds from security issuances) as a fraction of the firm’s asset value.
Direct-to-Consumer Marketing of Cigar Products in the
Coupons featured via Black & Mild emails were all for $2 off. Black & Mild direct mail coupons included discounts that ranged from 50 cents off to $2 off and Swisher Sweets coupons included $1-off coupons and buy one-get one free coupons. A breakdown of coupons by channel can be found in Table 2.
Default Risk Cannot Explain the Muni Puzzle: Evidence from
The coupons and capital gains received from investments in U.S. government bonds are subject to federal taxation. The coupons and amortized original issue discount received from an investment in municipal bonds are not subject to federal taxation; however, capital gains earned on municipal bonds are subject to federal taxation. 2.5 State taxes
How to restructure Euro area sovereign debt in the era of
A paper from 2011 (Edelen et al.), and two follow-ups from 2019 (Cervantes et al. and Cramer et al.), suggest that there might be a strategy to unilaterally extend maturities of debt with especially low coupon rates. 31 Assuming this strategy is workable, the idea would be to ask the holders of local-law bonds with especially low coupons to
Hydraulic fracturing offers view of microbial life in the
AN OVERVIEW OF BLACK SHALE GEOLOGY AND THE HYDRAULIC FRACTURING PROCESS. Organic-rich mudstones, commonly called black shales, constitute ∼35% of all sedimentary deposits making them the most abundant rock type preserved in the global sedimentary rock record (Tourtelot 1979; Wignall 1994).Black shale basins are found across the globe, with the largest known reserves in …
Consideration Sets and Competitive Marketing The Review
(i) Assume the contrary—i.e. that firms earn more than the rational-consumer pay-off 1 2 − c x * under some symmetric equilibrium strategy σ. By Lemma 1, Supp(σ) contains a strategy of the form (x *,M). The strategy (x *,Ø) generates the rational-consumer pay-off against any strategy. Therefore, it must be the case that Mx *,M)∈Supp(σ).
Rational Prepayment and the Valuation of Mortgage-Backed
A GNMA mortgage-backed security gives its owner a share in the cash flows from a pool of mortgages. 1 To value and hedge these securities requires a model of mortgage prepayment behavior, since this determines the timing of the cash flows. Schwartz and Torous (1989) is a recent example of a large body of literature, both academic and institutional, that empirically models prepayment as a
Phylogenetic and functional diversity of bacteria in
Coupons carrying biofilm used for DNA extraction, enrichment cultures and determination of potential sulfate reduction rate were stored submerged in dithionite-reduced DHS water in sealed glass bottles filled to capacity until analysis (<6 h). Biofilms were scraped off coupons using sterile plastic spatulas and surgical blades.
THE PRICE-INCREASING EFFECTS OF DOMESTIC CODE-SHARING
Abstract. This article assesses the impact of domestic code-sharing agreements on prices of non-stop flights in the United States. The article finds a positive and significant correlation between code-sharing agreements and the level of airfares, and considers this to be the outcome of two anticompetitive effects: (1) a “round table” effect, produced when the exchange of commercially
“The coupons and stuff just made it possible”: economic
INTRODUCTION. Chronic diseases are among the most common and costly, yet preventable and manageable, health problems in the USA .Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the USA, accounting for approximately 31% of deaths each year .CVD disproportionately affects racial minority groups and adults with lower socioeconomic status.
financial penalty for “unfair” debt: the case of Cuban
According to the Cuban bondholder association of 1899–1900, the total loss for the Cuban bondholders would be 50%. This was computed as 20% was taken off as Cuban debts were colonial debts, another 20% was taken off because of Spanish taxes and some more deduction as coupons were paid in pesetas which incurred exchange rate losses.
Design of Financial Securities: Empirical Evidence from
A natural trade-off of this detailed approach to data collection is that we have a relatively smaller sample size as compared with the universe of all deals. Therefore, we take special care in ensuring that our sample is representative. We use a stratified random sampling method to collect private-label RMBS deals covering a wide cross-section
Introducing vouchers for malaria prevention in Ghana and
In Ghana the use of a paper subsidy delivered in the public sector for redemption in the private sector was called a voucher, whereas those delivered in the public sector for exchange for an ITN in the public sector were called coupons. The coupons were then exchanged together with a top-up value of US$2.22 for an ITN. Discussion
Role of Normative Political Ideology in Consumer Behavior
He suggests that stores in Black Milwaukee are underdeveloped by management. Convinced that black-area stores cannot be profitable, management siphons off their revenues and redistributes them as capital improvements to white-area stores. For Tim, this underdevelopment process makes high costs for black-area stores a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Quantitative easing is not as unconventional as it seems
In the aftermath of the biggest banking crisis in living memory, and deep recessions in many advanced economies, central banks resorted to so-called ‘unconventional’ policies in an effort to support activity and stave off depression. However, quantitative easing is not as unconventional as is sometimes portrayed.
Microbe repelling coated stainless steel analysed by field
Biofilms were grown on the steel coupons immersed in media inoculated with the test strains as described in Table 1. Non-adhered or loosely adhered cells were washed off with water. The coupons were stained with Syto9 and the cell numbers were obtained from the fluorescence readings using a standard curve calibrated by microscopic counting.
Population Size Estimation using Multiple Respondent
That is, the simulated RDS had the same number of starting seeds, number of coupons given out, number of seeds with or without the trait (HIV infection), and distribution of number of recruits per respondent as the actual RDS run in that city. 4.3 Population Size Estimation Methods. We compare our method, CR-SS-PSE, with five other methods.
Effectiveness of social media in reducing risk factors for
All participants received 1 weight-loss group session, coupons for meal replacements, and access to an interactive website. Participants were placed in a no-counseling group (n=94 enrolled, n=58 analyzed) Physical activity (kcal/wk) Turner-McGrievy & Tate (2011), 22 USA Overweight adults (n=96; 75.0%) 6 mo (89.6%)
Incomplete Blockade: Soviet Zone Supply of West Berlin
The Soviet “cut-off”of electricity to West Berlin consisted of a demand that the Western sectors draw no more from the city's power grid than their own relatively small and inefficient plants fed into it.44 As a result, severe conservation measures were imposed in West Berlin, which, naturally, made no exceptions for companies desiring to
Socio-economic and gender differences in nutritional
All stand alone advertisements were included, but advertorials, money-off coupons and product placements were excluded. Advertisements for food and drink (referred to as ‘food’), but not food supplements (e.g. vitamins and fibre drinks), were grouped into one of eight food categories based on the UK Food Standards Agency's ‘Eatwell plate
Systematic Scoping Review of How Healthcare Organizations
$7 weekly coupons for 13 weeks; a second book of 13 could be issued if all coupons were used in the first instance; total: $91–$182 (no) Yes Bio: BMI BMI decreased significantly more in the Veggie Rx group than the control group (−0.74 kg/m 2 vs +0.35 kg/m 2) *Chrisinger et al. (2016), US One group: pre and post measurements
Zero-Coupon Yields and the Cross-Section of Bond Prices
The three yield curves plotted in Figure 1 show that there can be great differences between various representation methods. The two zero-coupon curves fit the yields to maturity moderately well for durations less than 5 years (though they disagree with each other at the 3- and 4-year maturities), but between 5 and 12 years there seem to be two separate curves in the Treasury yields data.
Optimal Long-Term Financial Contracting The Review of
A similar result would hold if the project's cash flows were increased by a constant—the debt coupons would increase by less than the increase in the cash flows. From Theorem 1, the agent's ability to divert the cash flows, parameterized by λ, directly determines the optimal fraction of outside equity, 1 − λ.